2010年11月19日 星期五

流行文化中的雌雄同體與變性美女

INTERSEX & TRANSGENDER IN POP CULTURE

流行文化中的雌雄同體與變性美女

不要叫他們雌雄同體。兩性間的人,誰擁有男性和女性的結合器官,身體構造屬性,最近一直是備受媒體的關注焦點。

首先,有傳言稱歌星女神卡卡有一個陰莖,一個奇怪的事件後,她在一次音樂會。女神卡卡否認這一傳聞,他說:“我沒有生氣 - 我的陰道是生氣。”

Lady GaGa has addressed rumours that she is a hermaphrodite during an interview on Australian radio.

The pop diva sparked a flurry of gossip and speculation after footage of her recent performance at Glastonbury appeared to show a bump in her crotch.

Speaking to Brisbane radio station Nova, GaGa said she wasn't offended by the rumours, but that her vagina was.

"My beautiful vagina is very offended," she told radio hosts Meshel, Ash and Tim when asked about the rumours. "I'm not offended - my vagina is offended."

The 23-year-old 'Poker Face' singer went on to blame the rumours on "society's reaction to a strong woman - the idea that we equate strength with man and a penis as a symbol of male strength".

Earlier in the week, Lady GaGa abruptly ended a phone interview with another Australian radio station SAFM after breakfast hosts Rabbit, Amber and Cosi cautiously broached the subject.

Lady GaGa的傳言已解決,她是雌雄同體在接受採訪時對澳洲廣播電台。

這位流行天后的八卦引發了一陣後的畫面和猜測,她近期的表現似乎顯示在格拉斯頓伯裡顛簸在她那裡。

在接受電台布里斯班新星,加加說她不介意的傳聞,但她的陰道了。

“我美麗的陰道是非常生氣,”她告訴主持人Meshel,灰分和蒂姆當被問及傳聞。 “我沒有生氣 - 我的陰道是生氣。”

這位 23歲的'撲克臉'歌手又繼續指責謠言對“社會的反應,一個堅強的女人 - 我們的想法等同於實力雄厚,擁有男子和一名陰莖作為男性力量的象徵”。

本週早些時候,Lady GaGa的電話採訪時突然結束了與另一澳大利亞電台 SAFM早餐後主機兔,琥珀和矽化鈷謹慎開始討論這個問題。
 
Then, South African athlete Caster Semenya’s gender came under investigation last month, after she won the 800 meter gold medal at Berlin’s World Athletics Championships. Her masculine features and athletic successes prompted a series of gender tests, which hit headlines even before the rumors were proven.


接著,南非運動員 Caster Semenya的的性別遭到調查上個月,當她贏得了800米的金牌,在柏林的世界田徑錦標賽。她的男性特徵和運動的成功引發了一系列的性別測試,這甚至在打標題的傳聞被證明。

(CNN) -- The international governing body for athletics urged caution Friday after reports that the world-champion South African runner Caster Semenya has both male and female organs.


The front cover of You magazine shows Semenya after a recent makeover.

The Sydney Morning Herald in Australia and The Sun newspaper in Britain reported that gender tests ordered by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) show the 18-year-old is a hermaphrodite.
Neither paper named the source of their information. IAAF spokesman Nick Davies would not discuss the findings with CNN. "I simply haven't seen the results," Davies said.

"We have received the results from Germany, but they now need to be examined by a group of experts and we will not be in a position to speak to the athlete about them for at least a few weeks.

"After that, depending on the results, we will meet privately with the athlete to discuss further action." Has Semenya been treated fairly?
The IAAF issued a statement, saying no decision on the case will be announced until the experts can look at the results.
A final decision regarding the case is not expected before the IAAF Council meets in late November in Monaco, the IAAF said.
Davies also said the news reports should be treated with caution. The newspapers said extensive physical examinations of Semenya show she has no ovaries, but rather has internal testes, which are producing large amounts of testosterone. What is intersexuality?

Semenya won the women's 800-meters gold medal at the World Athletics Championships in Berlin last month.
Defending champion Janeth Jepkosgei of Kenya took the silver and Jennifer Meadows of Britain claimed bronze.

The IAAF said it was seeking tests on Semenya's gender even before that race. Davies said questions about her were first raised after her astonishing displays at the African junior championships in July, with her masculine build and surprising performance fueling the rumors.

South Africans reacted angrily to Friday's reports, with one newspaper headline declaring "outrage."

Sport and Recreation Minister Makhenkesi Stofile said he was "shocked and disgusted" at the treatment that Semenya has received from the media, the IAAF, and the world.

"She may be a hermaphrodite, but so what? She is still a girl," Stofile told a news conference in Pretoria.

Even if Semenya has an unfortunate "proportion of hormones," he said, she is still "a young girl enjoying growing up." Stofile said he believes the teenager's human rights have been violated and that she was not given a chance to understand what the gender testing was all about.

South Africa will fight back if Semenya is excluded from further competition, Stofile said, adding, "It will be a third world war."
All indications were Friday that, at the very least, Semenya may be able to keep the gold medal she won in Berlin.
"Our legal advice is that, if she proves to have an advantage because of the male hormones, then it will be extremely difficult to strip the medal off her, since she has not cheated," Davies told CNN.

Semenya's countrymen -- including her father and the South Africa team manager -- have maintained that Semenya is a female.

Thousands of supporters crammed the airport in Johannesburg when she returned from Berlin last month. And this week, the athlete appeared on the cover of a South African magazine wearing makeup, jewelry and a glamorous dress.

Under IAAF rules, any time there is suspicion about an athlete's gender, the athlete can be asked to attend a medical evaluation before a panel consisting of a gynecologist, an endocrinologist, a psychologist, an internal medicine specialist and an expert on gender issues.

There are chromosome tests and scans of the athlete's body, Davies has said. He called gender verification -- which is generally required only for female athletes -- "an extremely complex procedure."

The process of gender verification has undergone big changes since it was first introduced for international competition in the 1960s, the IAAF said.
The first mechanism involved "rather crude and perhaps humiliating physical examinations," which soon gave way to mouth swabs to collect chromosomes, the IAAF said.

There were too many uncertainties regarding the mouth swabs, so the IAAF abandoned them in 1991 and the International Olympic Committee discontinued them in 2000, the IAAF said.

A proper test has yet to be found, the IAAF said, and the current round of tests is considered a good interim solution.
國際田聯要求對塞門亞雌雄同體索賠謹慎

(CNN)的 - 國際競技體育理事會敦促謹慎週五報導,世界冠軍的南非選手塞門亞連鑄機同時具有雄性和雌性器官。

該雜誌的封面顯示塞門亞的你在最近的改造。

悉尼先驅晨報在澳大利亞和英國的太陽報報導,性別測試下令由國際田徑聯合會(國際田聯)顯示 18歲是一個雌雄同體。
無論是紙命名為他們的信息來源。國際田聯發言人尼克戴維斯不會討論的結果與 CNN。 “我根本就沒有看到的結果,”戴維斯說。
“我們已經收到了來自德國的結果,但他們現在需要研究的一個專家小組,我們將不能在表態發言對他們的運動員在至少幾個星期。
“在那之後,根據研究結果,我們將滿足運動員私下與討論進一步行動。”有塞門亞受到公平的對待?
國際田聯發表聲明說,關於此案的任何決定將公佈,直到專家可以查看結果。

一個最後決定的情況預計不會國際田聯理事會開會之前,11月下旬在摩納哥,國際田聯說。

戴維斯還表示,新聞報導應謹慎對待。報紙說,塞門亞廣泛的身體檢查顯示她的卵巢沒有,而是有內部睾丸,這是產生大量的睾丸激素。什麼是中間性的?

塞門婭奪得女子800米金牌,在世界田徑錦標賽上月在柏林。

衛冕冠軍 Janeth Jepkosgei肯尼亞的銀牌和詹妮弗梅多斯英國聲稱銅牌。

國際田聯表示,它正在尋求試驗研究塞門亞的性別即使在那場比賽。戴維斯說,她的問題後,她首次提出了驚人的顯示在非洲青年錦標賽七月,與她的男性建立和令人驚訝的表現助長了謠言。

南非表示憤怒上週五的報告,同一家報紙的標題宣布“暴行”。

體育和娛樂部長 Makhenkesi Stofile說,他“感到震驚和厭惡”,在治療,塞門亞已收到來自媒體,國際田聯和世界。
“她可能是雌雄同體,那又怎樣呢,她仍然是一個女孩,”Stofile在記者會上表示在比勒陀利亞。
即使有一個不幸的塞門亞“的比例激素,”他說,她仍然是“一個年輕的姑娘享受成長。” Stofile說,他認為,該少年的人權受到侵犯,她沒有機會了解什麼是性別測試是一回事。

南非將爭取回來,如果塞門婭被排除在進一步競爭,Stofile說,“這將是第三次世界大戰。”

所有跡象表明,星期五,在最低限度,塞門亞可能能夠保持金牌,她贏得了柏林。

“我們的法律意見是,如果證明她有一個優勢,因為男性荷爾蒙,那麼這將是非常困難的地帶了她的金牌,因為她沒有欺騙,”戴維斯告訴 CNN。

塞門亞的同胞 - 包括她的父親和南非隊經理 - 都認為,塞門亞是女性。

成千上萬的支持者在約翰內斯堡機場擠滿,當她返回柏林的最後一個月。這個星期,運動員出現在封面的南非雜誌化妝,首飾和一個迷人的禮服。

根據國際田聯的規則,任何時候有懷疑有關運動員的性別,運動員可以被邀請參加一個醫療評估小組由前一個婦科醫生,內分泌學家,心理學家,一個內科專家和一名性別問題專家。

有染色體測試和掃描運動員的身體,戴維斯說。他呼籲性別驗證 - 這是一般只要求女運動員 - “一個非常複雜的程序。”

性別鑑定的進程中已經發生了很大變化,因為它首次引入了國際競爭的20世紀 60年代,國際田聯說。
第一種機制參與“,而原油和或許屈辱體檢”,這很快讓位於染色體口拭子收集,國際田聯說。
有太多的不確定因素口分泌物,所以放棄了他們在1991年國際田聯和國際奧林匹克委員會停止他們在2000年,國際田聯說。

一個適當的測試還沒有被發現,國際田聯說,當前一輪的測試被認為是一個很好的臨時解決辦法。
The Intersex Society of North America (ISNA) claims the field of medicine has “historically politicized the body,” categorizing people as either male or female, even though 1 in every 100 births deviates from standard gender definitions. [3] The ISNA offers literature backing their argument, including many case studies of people born into an ambiguous body.


在兩性人協會北美(薩兒)索賠醫藥領域的“歷史政治化的身體”分類人民無論是男性或女性,即使在每1 100年出生偏離了標準的性別定義。 [3]

How common is intersex?  雌雄同體有多常見?



To answer this question in an uncontroversial way, you’d have to first get everyone to agree on what counts as intersex —and also to agree on what should count as strictly male or strictly female. That’s hard to do. How small does a penis have to be before it counts as intersex? Do you count “sex chromosome” anomalies as intersex if there’s no apparent external sexual ambiguity?1 (Alice Dreger explores this question in greater depth in her book Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex.)


Here’s what we do know: If you ask experts at medical centers how often a child is born so noticeably atypical in terms of genitalia that a specialist in sex differentiation is called in, the number comes out to about 1 in 1500 to 1 in 2000 births. But a lot more people than that are born with subtler forms of sex anatomy variations, some of which won’t show up until later in life.

Below we provide a summary of statistics drawn from an article by Brown University researcher Anne Fausto-Sterling.2 The basis for that article was an extensive review of the medical literature from 1955 to 1998 aimed at producing numeric estimates for the frequency of sex variations. Note that the frequency of some of these conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, differs for different populations. These statistics are approximations.

要回答這個問題在一個沒有爭議的方式,你必須首先讓每個人都同意才算數為雌雄同體,並同意應算作什麼嚴格男性或嚴格女性。這很難做到。如何做一個小陰莖要收到算作雌雄同體?不要指望你的“性染色體”異常的陰陽如果沒有明顯的外部性歧義?一(愛麗絲 Dreger探討這個問題更深入地在她的書雌雄同體和醫務發明性。)


以下是我們知道:如果你問專家,醫學中心如何常常有一個孩子出生這麼明顯不典型條款生殖器,一個專門在性別分化被稱為,這個數字出來約 1在1500至1 2000年出生。但更多的人比出生時微妙形式的性解剖結構的變化,其中一些將不會出現,直到後來在生活中。

下面我們提供了一個簡易的統計來自布朗大學的研究人員的文章,安妮福斯托波- Sterling.2那篇文章的基礎,是一個廣泛的審查的醫學文獻,旨在1955年至1998年估計數字在生產性變異的頻率。請注意,其中一些頻率的條件,如先天性腎上腺增生症,針對不同人群不同。這些統計數據都是近似值。
Not XX and not XY one in 1,666 births  (不是不XY或XX染色體的每 1666個嬰孩中就出生一個)


Klinefelter (XXY) one in 1,000 births (克氏(XXY)染色體 ,每 1000個嬰孩中就出生一個) Androgen insensitivity syndrome one in 13,000 births (雄激素不敏感綜合徵狀,每13000個嬰孩中就出生一個)

Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome one in 130,000 births (部分雄激素不敏感綜合徵狀,每13000個嬰孩中就出生一個)
Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia one in 13,000 births (典型先天性腎上腺皮質增生症,每13000個嬰孩中就出生一個)

Late onset adrenal hyperplasia one in 66 individuals (晚發性腎上腺皮質增生症每66個人中就發生一個)

Vaginal agenesis one in 6,000 births (陰道發育不全,每6000個嬰孩中就出生一個)Ovotestes one in 83,000 births (Ovotestes症,每83000個嬰孩中就出生一個)Ovotestes症#兩性生殖器官的一些腹足類,包含兩個卵巢和睾丸。

Idiopathic (no discernable medical cause) one in 110,000 births (特發性(無可辨認的醫療成因),每110,000 個嬰孩中就出生一個)
Iatrogenic (caused by medical treatment, for instance progestin administered to pregnant mother) no estimate (醫源性(所造成的醫療待遇,例如對懷孕的母親孕管理)沒有估計)
5 alpha reductase deficiency no estimate (5α還原酶缺乏症,沒有估計)

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis no estimate (混合性腺發育不全,沒有估計)
Complete gonadal dysgenesis one in 150,000 births  (一個完整的性腺發育不全,每150,000 個嬰孩中就出生一個)

Hypospadias (urethral opening in perineum or along penile shaft) one in 2,000 births (尿道下裂(尿道口在會陰部或沿著陰莖),每2,000 個嬰孩中就出生一個)

Hypospadias (urethral opening between corona and tip of glans penis) one in 770 births (尿道下裂(尿道口之間的日冕和尖端龜頭),每770個嬰孩中就出生一個)

Total number of people whose bodies differ from standard male or female one in 100 births (總人數中其身體構造不同於男性或女性的標準,每100個嬰孩中就出生一個)

Total number of people receiving surgery to “normalize” genital appearance one or two in 1,000 births (總數人中接受手術將生殖器“正常化”出現一或兩個的,,每1000個嬰孩中就出生一個)


1 Dreger, Alice Domurat. 1998. Ambiguous Sex—or Ambivalent Medicine? Ethical Issues in the Treatment of Intersexuality. Hastings Center Report, 28, 3: 24-35.

2 Blackless, Melanie, Anthony Charuvastra, Amanda Derryck, Anne Fausto-Sterling, Karl Lauzanne, and Ellen Lee. 2000. How sexually dimorphic are we? Review and synthesis. American Journal of Human Biology 12:151-166.

薩兒提供文獻支持他們的論點,其中包括許多個案研究的人出生於一個曖昧的身體。[4]

The 2007 Argentine film XXY tells the story of a 15-year-old intersex person as she comes to terms with her sexuality.


2007年阿根廷電影 XXY講述的故事一個 15歲的雌雄同體的人來為她與她的性條款。



In spite of social stigmas, however, there have been many notable transgendered, transsexual and intersexual people in the public eye over the years. They’ve defined their own identity and found success as contributing members of society.


儘管社會的恥辱,然而,有許多著名的變性人,變性和中間性的人在公眾心目中多年。他們定義了自己的身份,發現成功,對社會有貢獻的成員。


IN POP CULTURE/FILM/TV


Amanda Lepore - Model for M.A.C. cosmetics, Swatch and Playboy; Regular subject of David LaChapelle’s art


Isis King - America’s Next Top Model contestant

Caroline Cossey (aka Tula) – British model, author and Bond girl

Alexandra Billings - Actress (Grey’s Anatomy, ER)

Candis Cayne - Actress (Dirty Sexy Money)

Candy Darling - Part of Andy Warhol’s Factory and subject of The Velvet Underground song “Candy Says”

Brandon Teena - Subject of the Academy Award winning film “Boys Don’t Cry”

Pepper LaBeija – Subject of the documentary “Paris is Burning”

Patricia Araujo – Runway model

Calpernia Addams - Actress and star of reality show “Transamerican Love Story”

SINGERS/MUSICIANS


Lee Kyung-eun (Stage Name “Harisu”) – South Korean pop singer


Jade Starr - Singer/Songwriter

Namoli Brenette - Singer/ Songwriter

Angelika Torres - Singer/ Dancer

Jackie Enx - Drummer for heavy metal band Rhino Bucket

Wendy Carlos - composer and electronic musician

Dana International - Israeli pop singer

Jennifer Jane Leitham - Jazz bassist

Billy Tipton - Jazz musician

Sara Davis Buechner (aka David Buechner) – Concert pianist

ATHLETES

Parinya Charoenphol (aka Nong Toom)- Thai boxer


Stella Walsh - Polish 100-meter Olympic gold medalist

Santhi Sounderajan - Indian 800-meter medalist, stripped of medal when revealed as transgender

Jennifer McCreath - Canadian marathon runner

Michelle Dumaresq - Professional mountain bicyclist

Renee Richards - Professional tennis player

Erik Schinegger (formerly Erika Schinegger)- Australian skiing world champion

Caster Semenya (awaiting confirmation from gender tests, at time of publication) – 800-meter gold medalist

1996 Thai volleyball team (aka “Iron Ladies”) – award winning team with many gay and transgendered people

POLITICIANS


Melissa Sklarz - First openly transgendered public official in New York


Michelle Bruce - Georgia’s first transgender politician

Stu Rasmussen - Oregon mayor

Vladimir Luxuria - Italian politician

Kamikawa Aya - First transgendered person to seek elected office in Japan

Georgina Beyer - World’s first transsexual mayor (1995) and member of parliament in New Zealand (2002)

IN BUSINESS/ RELIGION

Reverend David Weekley - Methodist minister


Danielle Bunten Berry (Formerly Dan Bunten) – US software developer for Electronic Arts

Margaret Stumpp - Co-manager of Quantitative Management at Prudential Financial Inc.

Sources:


[1] “Gaga’s Vagina “Offended” By He-She Rumors.” (Darren Rowe) Digital Spy Online. September 4, 2009
[2] “IAAF Urges Caution Over Semenya Intersex Claims” CNN World Sports News. September 11, 2009

[3] Intersex Society of America FAQ: How Common is Intersex?

[4] Intersex Society of America: Library

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