2010年2月25日 星期四

希臘古代雌雄同體雕像 (維基百科)

Hermaphrodite

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
"redirects here. For the symbol and its meaning in human sexuality and gender contexts, see Gender symbol and Transgender.
For other uses, see Hermaphrodite (disambiguation).

Sleeping Hermaphroditus. Hermaphroditus: Greek marble, Roman copy of the 2nd century CE after a Hellenistic original of the 2nd century BC, restored in 1619 by David Larique; mattress: Carrara marble, made by Gianlorenzo Bernini in 1619 on Cardinal Borghese's request. Borghese Collection, Louvre.
In a biological context, a hermaphrodite is an animal or plant that has both male and female reproductive organs.[1]
Many taxonomic groups of animals (mostly invertebrates), do not have separate sexes. In these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which both partners can act as the "male" or "female". For example, the great majority of pulmonate and opisthobranch snails and slugs are hermaphrodites. Hermaphroditism is also found in some fish, and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates.
Historically, the term hermaphrodite has also been used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species, especially human beings. The term comes from the name of the minor Greek god Hermaphroditus, son of Hermes and Aphrodite. Recently, intersex has been used and preferred by many such individuals, encouraging medical professionals to use the term.[2]

Contents

[edit] Zoology


This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2009)

[edit] Sequential hermaphrodites

Sequential hermaphrodites (dichogamy) occur in species in which the individual is born as one sex, but can later change into the alternate sex.[3] This is in contrast with simultaneous hermaphrodites, in which an individual may possess fully functional male and female gonads. Sequential hermaphroditism is common in fish (particularly teleost fish), many gastropods (such as the common slipper shell), and some flowering plants. While some sequential hermaphrodites can change sex multiple times, most can only change sex once.[citation needed] Sequential hermaphrodism is important in understanding behavioral ecology and life history theory.
Sequential hermaphrodites fall into two broad categories:
  • Protandry: Where an organism is born as a male, and then changes sex to a female.[3]
    • Example: The clownfish (Genus Amphiprion) are colorful reef fish found living in symbiosis with sea anemones. Generally one anemone contains a 'harem', consisting of a large female, a smaller reproductive male, and even smaller non-reproductive males. If the female is removed, the reproductive male will change sex and the largest of the non-reproductive males will mature and become reproductive. It has been shown that fishing pressure can change when the switch from male to female occurs, since fishermen naturally prefer to catch the larger fish. The populations are generally changing sex at a smaller size, due to natural selection.
  • Protogyny: Where the organism starts as a female, and then changes sex to a male.[3]
    • Example: wrasses (Family Labridae) are a group of reef fish in which protogyny is common. Wrasses also have an uncommon life history strategy, which is termed diandry (literally, two males). In these species, two male morphs exists: an initial phase male or a terminal phase male. Initial phase males do not look like males and spawn in groups with other females. They are not territorial. They are perhaps, female mimics (which is why they are found swimming in group with other females). Terminal phase males are territorial and have a distinctively bright coloration. Individuals are born as males or females, but if they are born males, they are not born as terminal phase males. Females and initial phase males can become terminal phase males. Usually, the most dominant female or initial phase male replaces any terminal phase male, when those males die or abandon the group.
Dichogamy can have both conservation-related implications for humans, as mentioned above, as well as economic implications. For instance, groupers are favoured fish for eating in many Asian countries and are often aquacultured. Since the adults take several years to change from female to male, the broodstock are extremely valuable individuals.

[edit] Simultaneous hermaphrodites

A simultaneous (or synchronous) hermaphrodite (homogamy) is an adult organism that has both male and female sexual organs at the same time.[3] Usually, self-fertilization does not occur.[citation needed]
  • Reproductive system of gastropods: Pulmonate land snails and land slugs are perhaps the best-known kind of simultaneous hermaphrodite, and are the most widespread of terrestrial animals possessing this sexual polymorphism. Sexual material is exchanged between both animals via spermatophore, which can then be stored in the spermatheca. After exchange of spermatozoa, both animals will lay fertilized eggs after a period of gestation; then the eggs will proceed to hatch after a development period. Snails typically reproduce in early spring and late autumn.
Banana slugs are one example of a hermaphroditic gastropod. Mating with a partner is more desirable biologically, as the genetic material of the resultant offspring is varied, but if mating with a partner is not possible, self-fertilization is practised. The male sexual organ of an adult banana slug is quite large in proportion to its size, as well as compared to the female organ. It is possible for banana slugs, while mating, to become stuck together. If a substantial amount of wiggling fails to separate them, the male organ will be bitten off (using the slug's radula), see apophallation. If a banana slug has lost its male sexual organ, it can still mate as a female, making its hermaphroditic quality a valuable adaptation.
  • Hamlets, unlike other fish, seem quite at ease mating in front of divers, allowing observations in the wild to occur readily. They do not practice self-fertilization, but when they find a mate, the pair takes turns between which one acts as the male and which acts as the female through multiple matings, usually over the course of several nights.
  • Earthworms are another example of a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Although they possess ovaries and testes, they have a protective mechanism against self fertilization. Sexual reproduction occurs when two worms meet and exchange gametes, copulating on damp nights during warm seasons. Fertilized eggs are protected by a cocoon, which is buried on or near the surface of the ground.

[edit] Pseudohermaphroditism

Female Hyenas have a clitoris that is greatly enlarged, so much so, that they were described as hermaphrodites — not only by the ancient Greeks, but as recently as the twentieth century among circus animal handlers — until scientific information was provided that clarified the misunderstanding.[citation needed]

[edit] Botany


Hylocereus undatus, a hermaphrodite plant with both carpels and stamens
Hermaphrodite is used in botany to describe a flower that has both staminate (male, pollen-producing) and carpellate (female, ovule-producing) parts. This condition is seen in many common garden plants. A closer analogy to hermaphrodism in animals is the presence of separate male and female flowers on the same individual—such plants are called monoecious. Monoecy is especially common in conifers, but occurs in only about 7% of angiosperm species (Molnar, 2004).

[edit] Other uses of the term

Main article: Intersexuality

The Reclining Hermaphrodite, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, National Museum of Rome, 1st century BC.
Hermaphrodite was used to describe any person incompatible with the biological gender binary, but has recently been replaced by intersexual in medicine. Humans with typical reproductive organs but atypical clitoris/penis are called pseudohermaphrodites in medical literature.
People with intersex conditions sometimes choose to live exclusively as one sex or the other, using clothing, social cues, genital surgery, and hormone replacement therapy to blend into the sex they identify with more closely. Some people who are intersexed, such as some of those with Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen insensitivity syndrome, outwardly appear completely female or male already, without realizing they are intersexed. Other kinds of intersex conditions are identified immediately at birth because those with the condition have a sexual organ larger than a clitoris and smaller than a penis, which is often referred to as a clenis. Intersexuality is thought by some to be caused by unusual sex hormones; the unusual hormones may be caused by an atypical set of sex chromosomes.
Sigmund Freud (based on work by his associate Wilhelm Fliess) held fetal hermaphroditism to be a fact of the physiological development of humans. He was so certain of this, in fact, that he based much of his theory of innate sexuality on that assumption. Similarly, in contemporary times, fetuses before sexual differentiation are sometimes described as female by doctors explaining the process.[4] Neither concept is technically true. Before this stage, humans are simply undifferentiated and possess a Müllerian duct, a Wolffian duct, and a genital tubercle.

[edit] Etymology

The term "hermaphrodite" derives from Hermaphroditus, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite in Greek mythology, who was fused with a nymph, Salmacis, resulting in one individual possessing physical traits of both sexes. Thus, Hermaphroditus could be called, using modern terminology, a simultaneous hermaphrodite. The mythological figure of Tiresias, who figures in the Oedipus cycle as well as the Odyssey, could be called a sequential hermaphrodite, having been changed from a man to a woman and back by the gods.

[edit] In fiction

18th century woodcut engraving by K. Lufloss, depicting the famous Reclining Hermaphrodite. From the Dr. Nuno Carvalho de Sousa Private Collections - Lisbon.
  • The Greek mythical figure, Tiresias, appears in many classical and modern works, including the Odyssey, Oedipus the King and the Divine Comedy.
  • Julia Ward Howe's unfinished novel The Hermaphrodite, written probably in 1846-1847, features a protagonist, a biological hermaphrodite, who is raised as a man but also spends some time living as a woman. He faces crises of identity and the problems of fitting into European gender roles of the period.
  • Robert A. Heinlein's 1959 short story "—All You Zombies—" is the tale of a (simultaneous yet sequential, by means of surgery to expose hidden male sex organs and remove damaged female organs) hermaphrodite who manages, via time travel, to impregnate his earlier outwardly female self who in turn gives birth to herself.
  • Ursula K. Le Guin's novel, The Left Hand of Darkness, featured a planet inhabited by humans whose ancestors had modified themselves to be sequential hermaphrodites. For twenty-four days of each twenty-six day lunar cycle, they were sexually latent androgynes, and for the remaining two days were male or female, as determined by pheromonal negotiation with an interested sex partner.
  • The 1990 Michael Crichton science fiction novel, Jurassic Park, and its 1993 film adaptation featured dinosaurs exhibiting a sequential hermaphrodite transformation as a key plot point. The ability of the scientists to maintain control over the park's cloned dinosaur population was derived by preventing the dinosaurs from developing a Y chromosome while in fetal development, thus ensuring that they were all females. However, the scientists used DNA of some other animals with sequential hermaphroditic abilities to complete fragmented portions of the dinosaurs' DNA, allowing some of them to become male in adulthood and mate. However, dinosaurs probably had the bird type of sex chromosome system, with ZZ for male and WZ for female, see: ZW sex-determination system.
  • The 1996 movie Tremors 2: Aftershocks had an animal called a Shrieker, which was determined to be a hermaphrodite after it reproduced without a mate. The animal had a large beak and short tall, stood aproximately three feet tall, walked on two legs, and had no arms.
  • The 1993 Gary Jennings novel, Raptor, features Thorn, a hermaphrodite, as its main character.
  • Baron Ashura, one of the Dr. Hell's henchmen in Mazinger Z series, is a hermaphrodite.
  • The Star Trek: New Frontier series features the Hermat species, including Burgoyne 172. Hermats possess both male and female characteristics.
  • In Nabari no Ou, Yoite was a hermaphrodite whose mother died giving birth to him.
  • In Star Wars, Hutts are hermaphrodites.
  • In Episode 17 of Freaks and Geeks, Amy, the girlfriend of Seth Rogen's character Ken, reveals that she was born with both male and female genitalia, but received an operation to become female.
  • The 2002 novel, Middlesex, is narrated by its protagonist, Calliope Stephanides, who is a true hermaphrodite.
  • In South Park's Season 2, Episode 2, "Cartman's Mom Is Still a Dirty Slut", Dr. Mephisto reveals that Mrs. Cartman is a hermaphrodite.
  • In the video game Spore, all creatures are hermaphrodites.
  • In the novel and manga adaption of the Ring (Ringu), Sadako Yamamura is told to be a hermaphrodite; that is, she has no uterus, but she identifies as female and has testes along with breasts.
  • In the early 1990s, Channel 4, a British television channel, showed a four-minute program in the late evening called "Hermaphrodite Bikini", where a few hermaphrodites danced naked to music.
  • In the video game, Zeno Clash, one of the main characters, Father-Mother is a initially believed to be a hermaphrodite. This belief is proven to be false near the conclusion of the game.
  • In the anime series, Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, the character/Duel Monsters spirit Yubel is a hermaphrodite. In the dub, however, she is censored and said to be female.
  • Most life forms on the fictional planet Darwin IV are hermaphrodites.
  • The short story "Cinismo" by Argentinean writer Sergio Bizzio, (in Spanish [1]) and the 2007 movie XXY, based on that story.
  • In the anime adaptation of Black Butler (Kuroshitsuji), the maid, Angela, is a hermaphrodite; she and 'Ash' are the same person.
  • In the futuristic novel "Crygender" (published 1992), by Thomas T. Thomas, the title character is a wealthy hermaphrodite.[5]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  2. ^ Intersex Society of North America | A world free of shame, secrecy, and unwanted genital surgery
  3. ^ a b c d Barrows, Edward M. (2001). Animal behavior desk reference: a dictionary of animal behavior, ecology, and evolution (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. p. 317. ISBN 0849320054. OCLC 299866547. 
  4. ^ Leyner, Mark; Goldberg M.D., Billy (2005). Why Do Men Have Nipples?: Hundreds of Questions You'd Only Ask a Doctor After Your Third Martini. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 1400082315. OCLC 57722472. 
  5. ^ "Crygender by Thomas T Thomas". http://books.google.com/books?id=UCppPKUoTTcC&source=gbs_ViewAPI. Retrieved January 24th, 2010. 

[edit] References

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links


 Hermaphrodite雌雄同體

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia維基百科,自由的百科全書

Sleeping Hermaphroditus . Hermaphroditus : Greek marble, Roman copy of the 2nd century CE after a Hellenistic original of the 2nd century BC, restored in 1619 by David Larique; mattress: Carrara marble, made by Gianlorenzo Bernini in 1619 on Cardinal Borghese 's request. Borghese Collection , Louvre . 睡眠HermaphroditusHermaphroditus希臘大理石,羅馬副本2世紀希臘後,原來的公元前2世紀,恢復了1619年由大衛拉里克;床墊:卡拉拉大理石,由雕塑家貝爾尼尼1619年就樞機貝佳斯氏的要求。 博爾蓋塞收藏 盧浮宮
In a biological context, a hermaphrodite is an animal or plant that has both male and female reproductive organs. [ 1 ]生物學方面, 雌雄同體是一種動物或植物,既有男性女性的生殖器官[1]
Many taxonomic groups of animals (mostly invertebrates ), do not have separate sexes.許多分類組動物(主要是無脊椎動物 ),沒有單獨的性別。 In these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which both partners can act as the "male" or "female".在這些群體中,雌雄同體是一種正常的條件下,實現了形式有性繁殖 ,其中夫妻雙方都可以作為"男性""女性"For example, the great majority of pulmonate and opisthobranch snails and slugs are hermaphrodites.例如,對大多數有肺opisthobranch 蝸牛蛞蝓是兩性人。 Hermaphroditism is also found in some fish , and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates .雌雄同體,也發現了一些 ,以及在較小的程度上,在其他脊椎動物
Historically, the term hermaphrodite has also been used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species, especially human beings.從歷史上看, 雌雄同體一詞也被用於描述模糊生殖器性腺嵌合體個體的兩性生殖的物種,特別是人類。 The term comes from the name of the minor Greek god Hermaphroditus , son of Hermes and Aphrodite .一詞來自於未成年人的姓名希臘神Hermaphroditus兒子赫耳墨阿佛羅狄忒 Recently, intersex has been used and preferred by many such individuals, encouraging medical professionals to use the term. [ 2 ]最近, 雌雄同體已使用,並傾向於許多這樣的人,鼓勵醫務人員使用的術語[2]

Contents目錄

[ edit ] Zoology [ 編輯 ] 動物



This section needs additional citations for verification .本節需要額外引用核查

Please help improve this article by adding reliable references . 請協助改善這篇文章加入可靠的參考 Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (August 2009) 小作品的材料可能會提出質疑 移除 。(20098月)

[ edit ] Sequential hermaphrodites [ 編輯 ] 順序兩性人

Sequential hermaphrodites ( dichogamy ) occur in species in which the individual is born as one sex, but can later change into the alternate sex. [ 3 ] This is in contrast with simultaneous hermaphrodites, in which an individual may possess fully functional male and female gonads.順序兩性人( 雌雄異熟 )發生在物種中,個人是一個出生的性別,但以後可以變成替代性[3]這是在對比同時兩性人,其中一人可能擁有全功能的男性和女性性腺。 Sequential hermaphroditism is common in fish (particularly teleost fish), many gastropods (such as the common slipper shell ), and some flowering plants.序貫雌雄同體是常見的魚類(尤其是硬骨的魚),許多腹足類 (如普通拖鞋殼 ),和一些開花植物。 While some sequential hermaphrodites can change sex multiple times, most can only change sex once. [ citation needed ] Sequential hermaphrodism is important in understanding behavioral ecology and life history theory .雖然有些順序兩性人可以改變性別多次,最多也只能改變性別的一次[ 編輯 ]順序hermaphrodism理解是非常重要的行為生態學生活的歷史理論
Sequential hermaphrodites fall into two broad categories:兩性畸形順序分為兩大類:
  • Protandry : Where an organism is born as a male, and then changes sex to a female. [ 3 ] 雄性先熟 :凡有機體出生的男性,然後更改性別的女性[3]
    • Example: The clownfish (Genus Amphiprion ) are colorful reef fish found living in symbiosis with sea anemones .例如: 小丑魚 (屬公子 )是五顏六色的珊瑚魚,發現居住在共生海葵 Generally one anemone contains a 'harem', consisting of a large female, a smaller reproductive male, and even smaller non-reproductive males.通常一個海葵中含有一個'后宮',包括一個大型的女性,更小的生育男性,甚至更小的非生殖男性。 If the female is removed, the reproductive male will change sex and the largest of the non-reproductive males will mature and become reproductive.如果女性被刪除,男性的生殖會改變性別和最大的非生殖男性會變得成熟和生殖。 It has been shown that fishing pressure can change when the switch from male to female occurs, since fishermen naturally prefer to catch the larger fish.它已經表明,捕撈壓力可以更改開關時,從男女發生,因為漁民自然希望趕上較大的魚。 The populations are generally changing sex at a smaller size, due to natural selection .一般的人口變化的性別在一個較小的規模,由於自然選擇
  • Protogyny : Where the organism starts as a female, and then changes sex to a male. [ 3 ] Protogyny如果機體開始為女性,然後更改性別的男性[3]
    • Example: wrasses (Family Labridae ) are a group of reef fish in which protogyny is common.例如: 海豬 (家族隆頭魚 )是一組的珊瑚魚在protogyny是常見的。 Wrasses also have an uncommon life history strategy, which is termed diandry (literally, two males).海豬魚也有一個不平凡的人生歷史的戰略,被稱為 diandry(字面意思,2男)。 In these species, two male morphs exists: an initial phase male or a terminal phase male.在這些物種中,有兩名男搖身一變存在:在最初階段的男性或終端階段男性。 Initial phase males do not look like males and spawn in groups with other females.初始階段的男性看起來不像男性和產卵群體與其他女性。 They are not territorial.他們不是領土。 They are perhaps, female mimics (which is why they are found swimming in group with other females).它們也許是女性模仿(這就是為什麼他們發現游泳組與其他女性)。 Terminal phase males are territorial and have a distinctively bright coloration.終端相男性領土和具有鮮明明亮的色彩。 Individuals are born as males or females, but if they are born males, they are not born as terminal phase males.個人出生的男性或女性,但如果是出生的男性,他們不是天生的末期男性。 Females and initial phase males can become terminal phase males.女性和男性的初始階段可以成為終端階段男性。 Usually, the most dominant female or initial phase male replaces any terminal phase male, when those males die or abandon the group.通常情況下,最主要的初始階段的女性或男性替換任何終端階段男,當這些男性死亡或放棄組。
Dichogamy can have both conservation-related implications for humans, as mentioned above, as well as economic implications.雌雄異熟可以同時具有自然保育有關對人類的影響,如上所述,以及經濟的影響。 For instance, groupers are favoured fish for eating in many Asian countries and are often aquacultured .例如, 石斑魚是最受歡迎的魚類為食,在許多亞洲國家,而且往往aquacultured Since the adults take several years to change from female to male, the broodstock are extremely valuable individuals.由於成年人需要幾年時間才能改變女性與男性的種魚是極其寶貴的個人。

[ edit ] Simultaneous hermaphrodites [ 編輯 ] 同步兩性人

A simultaneous (or synchronous) hermaphrodite ( homogamy ) is an adult organism that has both male and female sexual organs at the same time. [ 3 ] Usually, self-fertilization does not occur. [ citation needed ]阿同步(或同步)雌雄同體( 同類婚 )是成年生物體具有男性和女性性器官的同時[3]通常情況下, 自體受精不會發生[ 編輯 ]
  • Reproductive system of gastropods : Pulmonate land snails and land slugs are perhaps the best-known kind of simultaneous hermaphrodite, and are the most widespread of terrestrial animals possessing this sexual polymorphism. 腹足動物生殖系統 肺的 土地蝸牛和土地蛞蝓 ,也許是最有名的種同時雌雄同體,並且是最普遍的陸地動物擁有這個性多態性。 Sexual material is exchanged between both animals via spermatophore , which can then be stored in the spermatheca .性材料交換的動物通過精囊 ,然後可以儲存在精囊 After exchange of spermatozoa , both animals will lay fertilized eggs after a period of gestation; then the eggs will proceed to hatch after a development period.經過交換精子 ,這兩種動物的受精卵奠定經過一段時間的醞釀,然後將蛋進行孵化後的發展階段。 Snails typically reproduce in early spring and late autumn.通常蝸牛繁殖早春和晚秋。
Banana slugs are one example of a hermaphroditic gastropod. 香蕉蛞蝓是其中一種雌雄同體腹足。 Mating with a partner is more desirable biologically, as the genetic material of the resultant offspring is varied, but if mating with a partner is not possible, self-fertilization is practised.交配與合作夥伴是較為可取,生物,由於遺傳物質所造成的後代是多種多樣的,但如果交配與合作夥伴是不可能的,自體受精的實行。 The male sexual organ of an adult banana slug is quite large in proportion to its size, as well as compared to the female organ.男性性器官的成人香蕉蛞蝓是相當大的比例的大小,以及較女性器官。 It is possible for banana slugs, while mating, to become stuck together.這是可能的香蕉蛞蝓,而交配,成為粘在一起。 If a substantial amount of wiggling fails to separate them, the male organ will be bitten off (using the slug's radula ), see apophallation .如果大量的擺動不分開,男性器官將被叮咬過(使用蛞蝓的齒舌 ),見apophallation If a banana slug has lost its male sexual organ, it can still mate as a female, making its hermaphroditic quality a valuable adaptation.如果香蕉蛞蝓已經失去了男性性機構,它仍然可以作為一個女隊友,從而使其雌雄同體質量寶貴的適應。
  • Hamlets , unlike other fish, seem quite at ease mating in front of divers, allowing observations in the wild to occur readily. 小村莊 ,與其他魚類,似乎很放心交配前的潛水員,允許在野外觀測發生容易。 They do not practice self-fertilization, but when they find a mate, the pair takes turns between which one acts as the male and which acts as the female through multiple matings, usually over the course of several nights.它們不實行自我施肥,但當他們找到伴侶,兩人輪流採取哪一種行為之間的男性,而女性充當通過多種交配,通常在這一過程中幾個夜晚。
  • Earthworms are another example of a simultaneous hermaphrodite. 蚯蚓是另一個例子在同時雌雄同體。 Although they possess ovaries and testes, they have a protective mechanism against self fertilization.雖然他們擁有卵巢和睾丸,他們有一個自我保護機制對受精。 Sexual reproduction occurs when two worms meet and exchange gametes , copulating on damp nights during warm seasons.有性繁殖當兩個蠕蟲會面和交流配子 ,交配就在溫暖潮濕的季節夜晚。 Fertilized eggs are protected by a cocoon, which is buried on or near the surface of the ground.受精卵都受繭,這是被埋在地表或接近地面。

[ edit ] Pseudohermaphroditism [ 編輯 ] 假兩性畸形

Female Hyenas have a clitoris that is greatly enlarged, so much so, that they were described as hermaphrodites — not only by the ancient Greeks, but as recently as the twentieth century among circus animal handlers — until scientific information was provided that clarified the misunderstanding. [ citation needed ]鬣狗陰蒂是大大擴大,以至於,他們被形容為兩性人-不僅是古希臘人,但最近在20世紀處理中馬戲團的動物-直到提供了科學資料的澄清誤解。 [ 編輯 ]

[ edit ] Botany [ 編輯 ] 植物學


Hylocereus undatus , a hermaphrodite plant with both carpels and stamens 火龍果 ,一個雌雄同體植物既心皮雄蕊
Hermaphrodite is used in botany to describe a flower that has both staminate (male, pollen-producing) and carpellate (female, ovule-producing) parts. 雌雄同體用於植物學描述一個 ,它既有雄花 (男,花粉生產)和carpellate女,胚珠生產)的部分。 This condition is seen in many common garden plants.出現這種情況是在很多常見的園林植物。 A closer analogy to hermaphrodism in animals is the presence of separate male and female flowers on the same individual—such plants are called monoecious .阿類比hermaphrodism接近動物的存在是男性和女性分別花了同一個人,這種植物被稱為雌雄同株 Monoecy is especially common in conifers , but occurs in only about 7% of angiosperm species (Molnar, 2004). Monoecy尤其普遍在針葉樹 ,但發生在只有大約7%的被子植物種(莫爾納,2004)。

[ edit ] Other uses of the term [ 編輯 ] 其他用途的任期

Main article: Intersexuality主條目Intersexuality

The Reclining Hermaphrodite , Palazzo Massimo alle Terme , National Museum of Rome , 1st century BC.臥雌雄同體 馬西莫阿勒溫泉宮 國家博物館羅馬 ,公元前一世紀。
Hermaphrodite was used to describe any person incompatible with the biological gender binary , but has recently been replaced by intersexual in medicine. 雌雄同體是用來描述不符合任何人的生物性別二進制 ,但最近被替換intersexual的藥物。 Humans with typical reproductive organs but atypical clitoris/penis are called pseudohermaphrodites in medical literature.人類典型的生殖器官,但非典型陰蒂/陰莖被稱為pseudohermaphrodites在醫學文獻。
People with intersex conditions sometimes choose to live exclusively as one sex or the other, using clothing, social cues, genital surgery, and hormone replacement therapy to blend into the sex they identify with more closely.人與雌雄同體的條件,有時選擇住專為某一性別或其他使用衣物,社會線索,生殖器手術和激素替代療法的融入性,他們認同更密切合作。 Some people who are intersexed, such as some of those with Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen insensitivity syndrome , outwardly appear completely female or male already, without realizing they are intersexed.有些人誰是intersexed,如其中的一些與Klinefelter綜合徵雄激素不敏感綜合徵 ,表面上看起來完全女性或男性已經,沒有意識到他們是intersexed Other kinds of intersex conditions are identified immediately at birth because those with the condition have a sexual organ larger than a clitoris and smaller than a penis, which is often referred to as a clenis.其他類型的雌雄同體條件,立即確定在出生時,因為這些條件都與性器官大於 1陰蒂和陰莖小於 1,這往往被稱為 clenis Intersexuality is thought by some to be caused by unusual sex hormones; the unusual hormones may be caused by an atypical set of sex chromosomes. Intersexuality被認為有些人是由於不尋常的性激素不尋常的激素可能是由一種非典型性染色體一套。
Sigmund Freud (based on work by his associate Wilhelm Fliess ) held fetal hermaphroditism to be a fact of the physiological development of humans. 西格蒙德弗洛伊德 (基於工作由他的副威廉佛里斯 )舉行的胎兒畸形是事實的生理發育的人類。 He was so certain of this, in fact, that he based much of his theory of innate sexuality on that assumption.他是如此肯定這一點,事實上,他的許多他的理論性的內在根據這一假設。 Similarly, in contemporary times, fetuses before sexual differentiation are sometimes described as female by doctors explaining the process. [ 4 ] Neither concept is technically true.同樣,在當今時代,在胎兒性別分化 ,有時稱為女醫生解釋的過程[4]兩種概念在技術上是正確的。 Before this stage, humans are simply undifferentiated and possess a Müllerian duct , a Wolffian duct , and a genital tubercle .在此之前的階段,人類僅僅是未分化的,並擁有穆勒氏管 ,一沃爾夫管和一個生殖結節

[ edit ] Etymology [ 編輯 ]英語

The term "hermaphrodite" derives from Hermaphroditus , the son of Hermes and Aphrodite in Greek mythology , who was fused with a nymph , Salmacis , resulting in one individual possessing physical traits of both sexes.術語"雌雄同體"來自Hermaphroditus兒子的赫爾墨斯阿佛羅狄忒希臘神話中 ,誰是融合了仙女 Salmacis造成一人擁有身體特徵的男女兩性。 Thus, Hermaphroditus could be called, using modern terminology, a simultaneous hermaphrodite.因此,可稱為 Hermaphroditus,用現代術語,同時雌雄同體。 The mythological figure of Tiresias , who figures in the Oedipus cycle as well as the Odyssey , could be called a sequential hermaphrodite, having been changed from a man to a woman and back by the gods.在神話人物的泰瑞西亞斯 ,誰的數據, 俄狄浦斯週期以及奧德賽 ,可以說是一個連續的雌雄同體,而改為由一個男人對一個女人和背部的神。

[ edit ] In fiction [ 編輯 ] 在小說

18th century woodcut engraving by K. Lufloss, depicting the famous Reclining Hermaphrodite .木刻版畫18世紀由K. Lufloss,描繪了著名的躺雌雄同體 From the Dr. Nuno Carvalho de Sousa Private Collections - Lisbon.從努諾博士德索薩私人收藏 - 里斯本。
  • The Greek mythical figure, Tiresias , appears in many classical and modern works, including the Odyssey , Oedipus the King and the Divine Comedy .希臘神話人物, 泰瑞西亞斯 ,出現在許多古典和現代作品,包括奧德賽 俄狄浦斯國王神曲
  • Julia Ward Howe 's unfinished novel The Hermaphrodite , written probably in 1846-1847, features a protagonist, a biological hermaphrodite, who is raised as a man but also spends some time living as a woman. 朱莉婭沃德豪氏未完成的小說的雌雄同體 ,可能在1846年至1847年撰寫,採用了主角,一個生物雌雄同體,誰是提出了作為一個人,也花了一段時間的生活作為一個女人。 He faces crises of identity and the problems of fitting into European gender roles of the period.他面臨的危機的身份和裝修的問題納入歐洲的性別角色的時期。
  • Robert A. Heinlein 's 1959 short story " —All You Zombies— " is the tale of a (simultaneous yet sequential, by means of surgery to expose hidden male sex organs and remove damaged female organs) hermaphrodite who manages, via time travel, to impregnate his earlier outwardly female self who in turn gives birth to herself. 羅伯特A萊因1959年短篇小說",你殭屍,"是一個故事(同時還順序,通過手術方式揭露隱藏的男性性器官和刪除已損壞的女性器官)雌雄同體誰管理,通過時間旅行,他早期的受孕外表女性自我誰又生下自己。
  • Ursula K. Le Guin 's novel, The Left Hand of Darkness , featured a planet inhabited by humans whose ancestors had modified themselves to be sequential hermaphrodites. 娥蘇拉勒瑰恩的小說, 在黑暗的左手 ,特色居住的星球被人類的祖先已經修改了自己是連續的兩性人。 For twenty-four days of each twenty-six day lunar cycle, they were sexually latent androgynes , and for the remaining two days were male or female, as determined by pheromonal negotiation with an interested sex partner.對於二十四天每二六天月球週期,他們是潛在性雌雄同體 ,其餘兩天是男性還是女性,所確定的pheromonal談判,與有興趣的性伴侶。
  • The 1990 Michael Crichton science fiction novel, Jurassic Park , and its 1993 film adaptation featured dinosaurs exhibiting a sequential hermaphrodite transformation as a key plot point. 1990邁克爾克萊頓的科幻小說, 侏羅紀公園 ,以及1993年的電影改編特色展出了連續雌雄同體的轉變是一個關鍵情節點。 The ability of the scientists to maintain control over the park's cloned dinosaur population was derived by preventing the dinosaurs from developing a Y chromosome while in fetal development, thus ensuring that they were all females.在科學家的能力,以維持控制公園的克隆恐龍人口推導出防止恐龍從發展Y染色體 ,而在胎兒的發育,從而確保他們都是女性。 However, the scientists used DNA of some other animals with sequential hermaphroditic abilities to complete fragmented portions of the dinosaurs' DNA, allowing some of them to become male in adulthood and mate.然而,科學家利用DNA其他一些動物的順序雌雄同體的能力完成的部分零散的恐龍的DNA,使其中一些成為成年男性和隊友。 However, dinosaurs probably had the bird type of sex chromosome system, with ZZ for male and WZ for female, see: ZW sex-determination system .然而,恐龍可能有禽流類型染色體制度,兩個負載潿洲男性和女性,見ZW型性測量系統
  • The 1996 movie Tremors 2: Aftershocks had an animal called a Shrieker, which was determined to be a hermaphrodite after it reproduced without a mate. 1996年電影的震撼2:餘震有一個稱為Shrieker動物,它被確定為一雌雄同體複製後,沒有配偶。 The animal had a large beak and short tall, stood aproximately three feet tall, walked on two legs, and had no arms.它們有一個大喙和短身材高大,站在大約 3英尺高,走在兩條腿,並沒有任何武器。
  • The 1993 Gary Jennings novel, Raptor , features Thorn, a hermaphrodite, as its main character. 1993年的加里寧斯小說, 猛禽 ,索恩的特點,一個雌雄同體,因為它的主要特徵。
  • Baron Ashura , one of the Dr. 男爵阿舒拉節之一的博士 Hell 's henchmen in Mazinger Z series, is a hermaphrodite. 地獄氏追隨者在魔神Z系列,是一個陰陽人。
  • The Star Trek: New Frontier series features the Hermat species, including Burgoyne 172 .星際旅行:新進系列具有Hermat物種,包括伯戈因172 Hermats possess both male and female characteristics. Hermats擁有男性和女性特徵。
  • In Nabari no Ou , Yoite was a hermaphrodite whose mother died giving birth to him.沒有區名張 Yoite是雌雄同體的母親去世生下他。
  • In Star Wars , Hutts are hermaphrodites.星球大戰 Hutts是兩性人。
  • In Episode 17 of Freaks and Geeks , Amy, the girlfriend of Seth Rogen 's character Ken, reveals that she was born with both male and female genitalia, but received an operation to become female.17集的怪胎 而科技人才 ,艾米,女友的塞斯羅根氏性格肯,顯示她出生的男性和女性生殖器,但沒有收到行動,成為女性。
  • The 2002 novel, Middlesex , is narrated by its protagonist, Calliope Stephanides, who is a true hermaphrodite. 2002年的小說, 米德爾塞克斯 ,是敘述其主角,卡利奧普斯蒂芬,誰是真正的雌雄同體。
  • In South Park ' s Season 2, Episode 2, " Cartman's Mom Is Still a Dirty Slut ", Dr. Mephisto reveals that Mrs.南公園2季,第2" 特曼的媽媽仍然是一個骯髒的蕩婦"魔鬼博士透露, 夫人 Cartman is a hermaphrodite. 卡特曼是一個陰陽人。
  • In the video game Spore , all creatures are hermaphrodites.在視頻遊戲孢子 ,所有生物都是兩性人。
  • In the novel and manga adaption of the Ring ( Ringu ), Sadako Yamamura is told to be a hermaphrodite; that is, she has no uterus, but she identifies as female and has testes along with breasts.在小說和漫畫適應的 午夜凶鈴 ), 山村貞子被告知是一個陰陽人,也就是說,她沒有子宮,但她確定為女性,有睾丸隨著乳房。
  • In the early 1990s, Channel 4 , a British television channel, showed a four-minute program in the late evening called "Hermaphrodite Bikini", where a few hermaphrodites danced naked to music.90年代初, 4頻道 ,英國電視頻道,顯示了四分鐘的節目在深夜被稱為"雌雄同體比基尼",其中一些兩性人裸體跳舞音樂。
  • In the video game, Zeno Clash , one of the main characters, Father-Mother is a initially believed to be a hermaphrodite.在視頻遊戲, 芝諾衝突 ,其中一個主要角色,父親,母親是一個初步相信是雌雄同體。 This belief is proven to be false near the conclusion of the game.這種信念被證明是假的結論附近的遊戲。
  • In the anime series, Yu-Gi-Oh!在動畫系列, 遊戲王啊! GX , the character/Duel Monsters spirit Yubel is a hermaphrodite. 胸背 ,字符/決鬥怪獸精神Yubel是雌雄同體。 In the dub, however, she is censored and said to be female.在配音,不過,她是審查的,可以說是女性。
  • Most life forms on the fictional planet Darwin IV are hermaphrodites.大多數生命形式虛構的星球上的達爾文四是兩性人。
  • The short story "Cinismo" by Argentinean writer Sergio Bizzio , (in Spanish [1] ) and the 2007 movie XXY , based on that story.短篇小說"Cinismo"的阿根廷作家塞爾吉奧Bizzio,(西班牙語[1]2007年電影XXY根據這個故事。
  • In the anime adaptation of Black Butler ( Kuroshitsuji ), the maid, Angela, is a hermaphrodite; she and 'Ash' are the same person.在漫畫改編的黑色巴特勒 黑執事 ),女傭,安吉拉,是一個陰陽人,她和''是同一個人。
  • In the futuristic novel " Crygender " (published 1992), by Thomas T. Thomas , the title character is a wealthy hermaphrodite. [ 5 ]在未來的小說"Crygender"1992年公佈),由托馬斯T托馬斯 ,劇中主角是一個富有的雌雄同體[5]

[ edit ] See also [ 編輯 ] 參見

[ edit ] Notes [ 編輯 ] 註釋

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary ^ 韋氏詞典
  2. ^ Intersex Society of North America | A world free of shame, secrecy, and unwanted genital surgery ^ 雌雄同體協會北美洲|世界免費羞恥,保密和不想要的生殖器手術
  3. ^ a b c d Barrows, Edward M. (2001). Animal behavior desk reference: a dictionary of animal behavior, ecology, and evolution (2nd ed.). ^ 1 b 巴羅斯,愛德華(2001)。 辦公桌動物行為參考:1詞典的動物行為,生態和進化的 (第二版)。。 Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. 博卡拉頓的FLA:華潤出版社。 p. 317. ISBN 0849320054 . OCLC 299866547 . 317頁。 書號 0849320054OCLC 299866547  
  4. ^ Leyner, Mark ; Goldberg MD, Billy (2005). Why Do Men Have Nipples?: Hundreds of Questions You'd Only Ask a Doctor After Your Third Martini . ^ Leyner,馬克 ;戈德堡博士,貝利(2005年)。 為什麼男性的乳頭?:數以百計的問題你會只要求博士學位後 你的第三個馬提尼 New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 1400082315 . OCLC 57722472 . 紐約:三河出版社。 書號 1400082315OCLC 57722472  
  5. ^ "Crygender by Thomas T Thomas" . http://books.google.com/books?id=UCppPKUoTTcC&source=gbs_ViewAPI . ^"Crygender由托馬斯Ť托馬斯"http://books.google.com/books?id=UCppPKUoTTcC&source=gbs_ViewAPI Retrieved January 24th, 2010 . 本站2010124  

[ edit ] References [ 編輯 ] 參考

[ edit ] Further reading [ 編輯 ]延伸 閱讀

[ edit ] External links [ 編輯 ] 外部鏈接